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游戏化是游戏设计要素及游戏法则在非游戏场景中的应用。[1][2]游戏化通常引入游戏的设计元素来提高用户的参与度、提高组织生产力、增强心流、提高学习效果、实现众包、进行雇员招聘和评测、提高易用性、提高系统有效性、促进体育锻炼、减少交通违规和缓解选民冷漠等。一系列游戏化的研究表明,大多数的游戏化对个人有正面效果。然而,人与人之间、应用场景之间,游戏化的作用都存在差异。游戏化游戏化也能提高个人对电子信息和像音乐这样的特殊领域的理解能力。

Template:Distinguish Gamification is the application of game-design elements and game principles in non-game contexts.[1][2] Gamification commonly employs game design elements[1][3][4][5][6] to improve user engagement,[7][8][9] organizational productivity,[10] flow,[11][12] learning,[13][14] crowdsourcing,[15] employee recruitment and evaluation, ease of use, usefulness of systems,[12][16][17] physical exercise,[18] traffic violations,[19] voter apathy,[20] and more. A collection of research on gamification shows that a majority of studies on gamification find it has positive effects on individuals.[4] However, individual and contextual differences exist.[21] Gamification can also improve an individual's ability to comprehend digital content and understand a certain area of study such as music.[22]

技术 Techniques

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游戏化技术所利用的是人在社交、学习、专业、竞争、成就、状态、自我表达、利他主义或了结某事这类场景中的自然欲望,有时也会利用人单纯对于已经包装成游戏或游玩项目的情景的反应。早期的游戏化策略就是奖励完成指定任务或在竞争中胜出的玩家。这些奖励包括点数、奖章、等级的提升、进度条的填充或者提供虚拟货币。如果将这些完成任务的奖励展示给其他玩家,或者仅仅是制作一个排行榜都是激励玩家竞争的重要手段。

Gamification techniques are intended to leverage people's natural desires for socializing, learning, mastery, competition, achievement, status, self-expression, altruism, or closure, or simply their response to the framing of a situation as game or play.[23] Early gamification strategies use rewards for players who accomplish desired tasks or competition to engage players. Types of rewards include points,[24] achievement badges or levels,[25] the filling of a progress bar,[26] or providing the user with virtual currency.[25] Making the rewards for accomplishing tasks visible to other players or providing leader boards are ways of encouraging players to compete.[27]

其他游戏化的途径包括使现有任务看起来更像游戏。有些途径中的手段包括增加有意义的选项、设计好一个教程、增加挑战性或者增加故事主线等。

Another approach to gamification is to make existing tasks feel more like games.[28] Some techniques used in this approach include adding meaningful choice, onboarding with a tutorial, increasing challenge,[29] and adding narrative.[28]

应用 Applications

游戏化已经被应用于生活的方方面面了。在商业场景中的应用有:美国陆军曾使用过的招募工具——“美国的陆军”;也包括M&M在2013年推出的“间谍之眼”脆饼干游戏,旨在通过快乐的途径来增加用户在公司的脆饼干营销活动中的参与度。其他游戏化的例子可以在美国的教育系统中找到。根据学生获取的GPA在班上进行排名,这种模式和游戏中的高分榜一样。当院长的名单中光荣地提到学生的名字、学生进入优等生名单中或获得奖学金的时候,学生也会受到激励,这和游戏里的角色升级、获取虚拟货币和帮助游戏胜利的虚拟道具一样。工作招聘的流程也会应用游戏化,通过能模拟实际工作场景的问卷和小游戏,雇主可以得知应聘者是否适合这个岗位。

Gamification has been applied to almost every aspect of life. Examples of gamification in business context include the U.S. Army, which uses "America's Army" as a recruitment tool, and M&M's "Eye Spy" pretzel game, launched in 2013 to amplify the company's pretzel marketing campaign by creating a fun way to "boost user engagement." Another example can be seen in the American education system. Students are ranked in their class based on their earned grade-point average (GPA), which is comparable to earning a high score in video games. Students may also receive incentives, such as an honorable mention on the dean's list, the honor roll, and scholarships, which are equivalent to leveling-up a video game character or earning virtual currency or tools that augment game success. Job application processes sometimes use gamification as a way to hire employees by assessing their suitability through questionnaires and mini games that simulate the actual work environment of that company.

市场营销 Marketing

游戏化已经被广泛应用于市场营销之中。在2013年的一份调查报告中显示,福布斯2000年全球排行榜上有名的公司中的70%声称他们将会应用游戏化进行营销及提高顾客留存率。[30]其中的一个例子是澳大利亚广播及其在线媒体伙伴Yahoo!在2011年11月一同公布了Fango手机应用,这一应用可以让电视观众们通过签到获得奖章的方式和节目进行互动。而到了2012年2月,该应用已经被下载了20万次。[31]游戏化也被用于一些顾客忠诚计划中。比如在2010年,星巴克在四方应用上推出了定制的勋章,奖励给那些在不同门店签到的人们,并对每个门店签到最频繁的顾客提供折扣奖励。[32]

Gamification has been widely applied in marketing. Over 70% of Forbes Global 2000 companies surveyed in 2013 said they planned to use gamification for the purposes of marketing and customer retention.[30] For example, in November, 2011, Australian broadcast and online media partnership Yahoo!7 launched its Fango mobile app/SAP, which TV viewers use to interact with shows via techniques like check-ins and badges. As of February, 2012, the app had been downloaded more than 200,000 times.[31] Gamification has also been used in customer loyalty programs. In 2010, Starbucks gave custom Foursquare badges to people who checked in at multiple locations, and offered discounts to people who checked in most frequently at an individual store.[32]

游戏化同样也能作为商家和用户接触的工具[33],也能鼓励用户进行特定的网站使用行为。[26]另外,游戏化也能用于提高社交网络网站的使用度。在2010年8月,DevHub的网站建设者宣布当加入游戏化元素后,能完成的在线任务的用户数从10%提高到了80%。[34]在编程问答网站Stack Overflow上,用户的通过Facebook和twitter分享问答都能为他们赢得点数和勋章,而当用户的声望点超过不同阀值时,用户可以获得额外的特权,最高级的特权包括版主。

Gamification also has been used as a tool for customer engagement,[33] and for encouraging desirable website usage behavior.[26] Additionally, gamification is applicable to increasing engagement on sites built on social network services. For example, in August, 2010, the website builder DevHub announced an increase in the number of users who completed their online tasks from 10% to 80% after adding gamification elements. [34] On the programming question-and-answer site Stack Overflow users receive points and/or badges for performing a variety of actions, including spreading links to questions and answers via Facebook and Twitter. A large number of different badges are available, and when a user's reputation points exceed various thresholds, the user gains additional privileges, eventually including moderator privileges.

创作灵感 Inspiration

Gamification can be used for ideation (structured brainstorming to produce new ideas). A study at MIT Sloan found that ideation games helped participants generate more and better ideas, and compared it to gauging the influence of academic papers by the numbers of citations received in subsequent research.[35]

医疗健康 Health

Template:See also Applications like Fitocracy and QUENTIQ use gamification to encourage their users to exercise more effectively and improve their overall health. Users are awarded varying numbers of points for activities they perform in their workouts, and gain levels based on points collected. Users can also complete quests (sets of related activities) and gain achievement badges for fitness milestones.[36] Health Month adds aspects of social gaming by allowing successful users to restore points to users who have failed to meet certain goals. Public health researchers have studied the use of gamification in self-management of chronic diseases and common mental disorders,[37][38] STD prevention,[39][40] and infection prevention and control.[41]

In a review of health apps in the 2014 Apple App Store, more than 100 apps showed a positive correlation between gamification elements used and high user ratings. MyFitnessPal was named as the app that used the most gamification elements.[42]

Reviewers of the popular location-based game Pokémon Go praised the game for promoting physical exercise. Terri Schwartz (IGN) said it was "secretly the best exercise app out there," and that it changed her daily walking routine.[43] Patrick Allen (Lifehacker) wrote an article with tips about how to work out using Pokémon Go.[44] Julia Belluz (Vox) said it could be the "greatest unintentional health fad ever," writing that one of the results of the game that the developers may not have imagined was that "it seems to be getting people moving."[45] One study showed users took an extra 194 steps per day once they started using the app, approximately 26% more than usual.[46] Ingress is a similar game that also requires a player to be physically active. Zombies, Run!, a game in which the player is trying to survive a zombie apocalypse through a series of missions, requires the player to (physically) run, collect items to help the town survive, and listen to various audio narrations to uncover mysteries. Mobile, context-sensitive serious games for sports and health have been called exergames.[47]

工作 Work

Gamification has been used in an attempt to improve employee productivity, healthcare, financial services, transportation, government,[48][49] and others.[50] In general, enterprise gamification refers to work situations where "game thinking and game-based tools are used in a strategic manner to integrate with existing business processes or information systems. And these techniques are used to help drive positive employee and organizational outcomes."[9] In 2015 Microsoft gamified performance management in its Customer Support Services call center to improve agents' engagement, satisfaction, and retention. The gamification approaches used included leveling (level advancement), badges, and scoring systems, as well as other game elements that vary by agent and region.[51]

众包 Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing has been gamified in games like Foldit, a game designed by the University of Washington, in which players compete to manipulate proteins into more efficient structures. A 2010 paper in science journal Nature credited Foldit's 57,000 players with providing useful results that matched or outperformed algorithmically computed solutions.[52] The ESP Game is a game that is used to generate image metadata. Google Image Labeler is a version of the ESP Game that Google has licensed to generate its own image metadata.[53] Research from the University of Bonn used gamification to increase wiki contributions by 62%.[54]

教育 Education

游戏化的应用已经引起了教育以及技能培训等相关领域的兴趣。[55][56] 例如微软,在发布Office办公软件的同时还附带了一款名为Ribbon Hero 2的小游戏,以此帮助用户更为有效地学习和使用软件。[57]在微软发布的众多技能培训项目中,该游戏一度被视为最受用户欢迎的项目之一。[58]麦克阿瑟基金会以及比尔及梅琳达·盖茨基金会的资金支持下,纽约市教育部门专门设立了一所名为Quest to Learn的学校。该校主要通过游戏化的教学方式,为孩子提供互动更为紧密,参与感更强的学习体验。[59]总部位于德国的SAP公司已经开始使用游戏让员工了解可持续发展的重要性。[60]美国军方,联合利华都开始将游戏化概念融入到日常的人员技能训练当中。[49] 提供免费课程的可汗学院也是一个将游戏化的技术应用到在线教育平台的实例。2009年8月,瑞士的Gbanga公司为苏黎世动物园推出了一款名为Gbanga Zooh的教育游戏。结合实际的地理位置,游戏希望参与者积极寻找并救助陷入险境的野生动物并将它们带回动物园。苏黎世州的玩家可以通过游戏保护虚拟地野生动物栖息地,吸引并收集珍贵物种。此外,在部分临床试验中人们还发现游戏化的概念能够明显帮助患有阅读障碍的学生提升学习动力。[61]

Education and training are areas where there has been interest in gamification.[55][56] Microsoft released the game Ribbon Hero 2 as an add-on to their Office productivity suite to help train people to use it effectively,[57] this project was described by Microsoft as one of the most popular projects its Office Labs division ever released.[58] The New York City Department of Education with funding from the MacArthur Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has set up a school called Quest to Learn centred around game-based learning, with the intent to make education more engaging and relevant to modern kids.[59] SAP has used games to educate their employees on sustainability.[60] The US military and Unilever have also used gamification in their training.[49] The Khan Academy is an example of the use of gamification techniques in online education.[62] In August 2009, Gbanga launched the educational location-based game Gbanga Zooh for Zurich Zoo that asked participants to actively save endangered animals and physically bring them back to a zoo. Players maintained virtual habitats across the Canton of Zurich to attract and collect endangered species of animals. There is some indication that gamification can be particularly motivational for students with dyslexia in educational situations.[61]

企业内部的职业训练也会采用游戏化的培训方式,以此帮助员工将学到的技能充分应用到实际工作中。理论上,这将有效提升业绩表现。[63] 据Badgeville公司研究,78%的员工在日常工作中会利用游戏化的方式维持动力。其中接近91%的人认为类似的游戏化驱动方式使得工作中的理解,效率,参与感都有了明显提升,并因此获得了许多职场经验。[64]

Gamification is used in corporate training to motivate employees to apply what they learned in the training to their job, theoretically this should improve performance.[63] According to a study conducted by Badgeville, 78% of workers are utilizing games-based motivation at work and nearly 91% say these systems improve their work experience by increasing engagement, awareness and productivity.[64]

政治和恐怖组织 Politics and terrorist groups

Alix Levine, an American security consultant, reports that some techniques that a number of extremist websites such as Stormfront and various terrorism-related sites used to build loyalty and participation can be described as gamification. As an example, Levine mentioned reputation scores.[65][66]

The Chinese government has announced that it will begin using gamification to rate its citizens in 2020, implementing a "social credit" system in which citizens will earn points representing trustworthiness. Details of this project are still vague, but it has been reported that citizens will receive points for good behavior, such as making payments on time and educational attainments.[67]

科技设计 Technology design

Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations.[68] Examples of such systems used primarily to fulfill users' intrinsic motivations, include online gaming, virtual worlds, online shopping, learning/education, online dating, digital music repositories, social networking, online pornography, and so on. Such systems are excellent candidates for further 'gamification' in their design. Moreover, even traditional management information systems (e.g., ERP, CRM) are being 'gamified' such that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations must increasingly be considered.

As illustration, Microsoft has announced plans to use gamification techniques for its Windows Phone 7 operating system design.[69] While businesses face the challenges of creating motivating gameplay strategies, what makes for effective gamification[70] is a key question.

One important type of technological design in gamification is the player centered design. Based on the design methodology user-centered design, its main goal is to promote greater connectivity and positive behavior change between technological consumers. It has five steps that help computer users connect with other people online to help them accomplish goals and other tasks they need to complete. The 5 steps are: an individual or company has to know their player (their target audience), identify their mission (their goal), understand human motivation (the personality, desires, and triggers of the target audience), apply mechanics (points, badges, leaderboards, etc.), and to manage, monitor, and measure the way they are using their mechanics to ensure it is helping them achieve the desired outcome of their goal and that their goal is specific and realistic.[71]

验证 Authentication

Gamification has also been applied to authentication. For example, the possibilities of using a game like Guitar Hero can help someone learn a password implicitly.[72] Furthermore, games have been explored as a way to learn new and complicated passwords. It is suggested that these games could be used to "level up" a password, thereby improving its strength over time.[73] Gamification has also been proposed as a way to select and manage archives.[74] Recently, an Australian technology company called Wynbox has recorded success in the application of its gamification engine to the hotel booking process.[75]

历史 History

Though the term "gamification" first appeared online in the context of computer software in 2008,[76]Template:Efn it did not gain popularity until 2010.[77][78] Even prior to the term coming into use, other fields borrowing elements from videogames was common; for example, some work in learning disabilities[79] and scientific visualization adapted elements from videogames.[80]

The term "gamification" first gained widespread usage in 2010, in a more specific sense referring to incorporation of social/reward aspects of games into software.[81] The technique captured the attention of venture capitalists, one of whom said he considered gamification the most promising area in gaming.[82] Another observed that half of all companies seeking funding for consumer software applications mentioned game design in their presentations.[26]

Several researchers consider gamification closely related to earlier work on adapting game-design elements and techniques to non-game contexts. Deterding et al.[3] survey research in human–computer interaction that uses game-derived elements for motivation and interface design, and Nelson[83] argues for a connection to both the Soviet concept of socialist competition, and the American management trend of "fun at work". Fuchs[84] points out that gamification might be driven by new forms of ludic interfaces. Gamification conferences have also retroactively incorporated simulation; e.g. Will Wright, designer of the 1989 video game SimCity, was the keynote speaker at the gamification conference Gsummit 2013.[85]

In addition to companies that use the technique, a number of businesses created gamification platforms. In October 2007, Bunchball,[86] backed by Adobe Systems Incorporated,[87] was the first company to provide game mechanics as a service,[88] on Dunder Mifflin Infinity, the community site for the NBC TV show The Office. Bunchball customers have included Playboy, Chiquita, Bravo, and The USA Network.[89] Badgeville, which offers gamification services, launched in late 2010, and raised $15 million in venture-capital funding in its first year of operation.[90]

Among established enterprise firms, SAP AG,[91][92] Microsoft, IBM, SAP, LiveOps, Deloitte, and other companies have started using gamification in various applications and processes.[93]

Gamification 2013, an event exploring the future of gamification, was held at the University of Waterloo Stratford Campus in October 2013.[94]

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法律限制 Legal restrictions

Through gamification's growing adoption and its nature as a data aggregator, multiple legal restrictions may apply to gamification. Some refer to the use of virtual currencies and virtual assets, data privacy laws and data protection, or labour laws.[95]

The use of virtual currencies, in contrast to traditional payment systems, is not regulated. The legal uncertainty surrounding the virtual currency schemes might constitute a challenge for public authorities, as these schemes can be used by criminals, fraudsters and money launderers to perform their illegal activities.[96]

批评 Criticism

University of Hamburg researcher Sebastian Deterding has characterized the initial popular strategies for gamification as not being fun and creating an artificial sense of achievement. He also says that gamification can encourage unintended behaviours.[97]

In a review of 132 of the top health and fitness apps in the Apple app store, in 2014, using gamification as a method to modify behavior, the authors concluded that "Despite the inclusion of at least some components of gamification, the mean scores of integration of gamification components were still below 50 percent. This was also true for the inclusion of game elements and the use of health behavior theory constructs, thus showing a lack of following any clear industry standard of effective gaming, gamification, or behavioral theory in health and fitness apps."[42]

Concern was also expressed in a 2016 study analyzing outcome data from 1298 users who competed in gamified and incentivized exercise challenges while wearing wearable devices. In that study the authors conjectured that data may be highly skewed by cohorts of already healthy users, rather than the intended audiences of participants requiring behavioral intervention.[98]

Game designers like Jon Radoff and Margaret Robertson have also criticized gamification as excluding elements like storytelling and experiences and using simple reward systems in place of true game mechanics.[99][100]

Gamification practitioners[101][102] have pointed out that while the initial popular designs were in fact mostly relying on simplistic reward approach, even those led to significant improvements in short-term engagement.[103] This was supported by the first comprehensive study in 2014, which concluded that an increase in gamification elements correlated with an increase in motivation score, but not with capacity or opportunity/trigger scores.[42][104]

The same study called for standardization across the app industry on gamification principles to improve the effectiveness of health apps on the health outcomes of users.[42]

MIT Professor Kevin Slavin has described business research into gamification as flawed and misleading for those unfamiliar with gaming.[105] Heather Chaplin, writing in Slate, describes gamification as "an allegedly populist idea that actually benefits corporate interests over those of ordinary people".[106] Jane McGonigal has distanced her work from the label "gamification", listing rewards outside of gameplay as the central idea of gamification and distinguishing game applications where the gameplay itself is the reward under the term "gameful design".[107]

"Gamification" as a term has also been criticized. Ian Bogost has referred to the term as a marketing fad and suggested "exploitation-ware" as a more suitable name for the games used in marketing.[108] Other opinions on the terminology criticism have made the case why the term gamification makes sense.[109]

Fuchs et al. investigated historical predecessors to today's gamification that go back to the 18th century.[110]

参考文献 References

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Further reading

External links

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